By Pratik Kadam

The Test for each security & safety personnel to confirm for DWI & DUI when Breathalysers are not effective to avoid Drunk Driving or menace.

For Your Eyes Only as it is said Eyes don’t lie.

Addiction & the impacts in organization’s security culture.

What exactly is addiction?

According to general agreement, it relies on the tripod of

  • More and more medications are needed to get the same results due to TOLERANCE.
  • A psychological dependence on the drug’s effect is referred to as HABITUATION.
  • PHYSICAL DEPENDENCE Drug use for a prolonged period of time causes adisruption of normal physiological processes.

Addiction is a form of physical and mental bondage that requires ongoing use in order to partially maintain physiological equilibrium.

As a result, there is no doubt that both moral and physical destruction will occur. Alcohol is typically thought of as a stimulant by the general public, although it only lowers inhibitions rather than giving the sense of simulation.

Alcohol is actually an anaesthetic that has chemical properties similar to Chloroform and Ether.

You’re becoming anaesthetized as you consume alcohol.

The Truth is in the Eyes

The Test for each security & safety personnel to confirm for DWI & DUI when Breathalysers are not effective to avoid Drunk Driving or menace.

For Your Eyes Only as it is said Eyes don’t lie.

  • There are a variety of equipment that can aid in DWI (driving while intoxicated) and DUI (driving under the influence) situations since the security and safety of you and the general public are of the utmost significance. Although many security professionals had avoided employing breathalysers due to the social distancing standard, the COVID 19 has revolutionized the security detection and criminal prevention procedures so that they are no longer used.
  • Instead, all employees are now adopting a variety of workarounds and potential hacks that have circumvented the breath analyser’s technology.
  • Security professionals and transport security should always prepare for failure and what-if situations when handling tangible and intangible assets because they still need improvement and augmentation.
  •   In general, security specialists must adopt alternative strategies to strengthen security and ensure that safety and security are not compromised.
  • Even though the procedure may be cumbersome, there will still be a deterrent among the crew. In general, security experts must employ a range of strategies when establishing that they have good reason to detain DWI and DUI suspects.
  • The three most common BAC analysis techniques are breath, blood, and urine tests. Sweat is also used, however in addition to creating SOPs, specialized equipment, methods, and training are recommended.
  • One such procedure is the SFST (Standardized Field Sobriety Test), in which a staff member trained or familiar with SFST will proceed for the clarification if they suspect anyone who might be under the influence of drugs or alcohol.
  • With this kind of test, the personnel conducting it will be able to determine the symptoms through the analysis displayed by the suspect under the suspicion whether it is a negative test or positive test.

What is SFST Test?

  1. When a machine or other approach isn’t functioning, due to any other challenges which restrict the usage of breathalyzer tests, and whenever there isn’t an instant alternative solution available, the security personnel will execute this directive, which is followed by a series of tests.
  2. This test includes a meticulous observation of eye movements. An individual under the effects of drugs or alcohol may exhibit various observable behaviours which are not to his favor, and his eye will begin involuntary movement from left to right and vice versa, which is termed as HGN (Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus). To ascertain what, if anything, is affecting the driver, the specialists use information from 12 tests, including eye reaction, heart rate, blood pressure, the capacity to walk in a straight line, muscle tone, and counting to 30 while keeping the eyes closed and tilting the head back.
  3. While a drug recognition expert may not be able to pinpoint the precise substance in a driver’s system, he can help law enforcement by indicating whether the defendant was under the influence of a stimulant, depressant, inhalant, cannabis, or other type of drug and what the impact would have been on his driving.

Standardized Field Sobriety Test (SFST) Describe Nystagmus.

  1. Nystagmus is characterised by repetitive, abnormal eye movements in which a “slow” movement pulls the eye away from the target and a second movement pulls it back. The movement may be rotating (Nystagmus rotary), vertical (nystagmus vertical), horizontal (horizontal nystagmus), or a mix of these motions. Nystagmus can be pendular or jerk-type, variable in amplitude and frequency, and it can be made worse or better by fixation, gaze position, or closing one eye (latent).
  2. To enhance the protection and safety of every stakeholder while providing transport for commuting to workplace, security team should receive DRE training. Consequently, every business should proactively train the security personnel in DRE (Drug Recognition Expert), viewing it as a crucial component of training. Organizations always have aimed to establish drug- and alcohol-free workplaces, so in order to implement this policy, every security personnel must undergo the fundamental DRE training.
  3. The condition known as nystagmus causes rapid, uncontrollable eye movement. The eyeballs can move: up and down (vertical nystagmus), side to side (horizontal nystagmus), and in a circle (rotary nystagmus) The movement, which typically involves both eyes, can be slow or swift.
  4. When gazing in particular directions, the eyes could tremble more. Nystagmus patients may tilt or turn their heads to improve their vision. The eye motions are slowed down as a result. Nystagmus is defined as irregular, involuntary eye movements, which might be quick or slow oscillatory movements.
  5. Nystagmus, by definition, begins with a gradual eye movement away from the visual target.
  6. The eye is brought back to the visual target by the second movement. If the eye returns to the visual target with the second movement. The second movement is referred to as sluggish nystagmus, or pendular nystagmus.
  7. Nystagmus is referred as jerk nystagmus if the second movement is rapid. Conventionally, the fast phase of nystagmus is designated after the direction of jerk nystagmus, such as right-beating nystagmus. The fast phase is to the patient’s right when they have a right-beating nystagmus.
  8. Therefore, it will be up to the management to take the necessary action to prevent any disciplinary action being taken against the suspicious staff for non-cooperation or not being willing to the aforementioned test.
  9.   In addition, the security guard who has received DRE training will frequently ask for a test for horizontal gaze nystagmus (HGN).
  10. One of the several field sobriety tests used by police to evaluate whether a person’s blood alcohol level is too high is the herky-jerky eye movement test, or HGN.
  • Nystagmus waveforms

The four components of the horizontal gaze nystagmus test, which are conducted on both eyes, include smooth pursuit, maximum deviation, prior to 45 degrees, and vertical nystagmus. Nystagmus waveforms are named for their slow period. The stimulus used in the horizontal gaze nystagmus DWI testing is often a finger or a pen held about 12 inches from the test subject’s nose. These instructions are given to the person doing the SFTS for horizontal gaze nystagmus:

  1. Please take off your eyewear, stand with your feet together, and place your hands by your sides.
  2. Maintain eye contact with the stimulus while keeping your head motionless until the test is finished back to the centre, then to the left, far right, and right.
  3. Officer search for equal pupil size and overt neurological signs when looking for equal tracking (even a Security officer has not received medical training).

Smooth chase is the name given to the initial horizontal gaze nystagmus test.

  • Security personnel will twice move the stimulus in a person’s eye from the centre to the far left and back, then to the far right and back. It is necessary for the stimulus to move at least twice as quickly from the centre to the side as it does from the side to the centre. If the security officer assert that the pursuit was not smooth and an eye jerked, they will mark the observation.
  • The first horizontal gaze nystagmus tests is called smooth pursuit. Security personnel will twice move the stimulus from the center of a person’s eye to the far left and back to the center, followed by far right and back to center. The stimulus (pen, or any straight object where individual will concentrate) is required to be moved at a speed of at least two seconds from the center to the side and then at least two seconds back to the center. If the police claim that an eye jerked, i.e. there was not smooth pursuit, they will mark the test as a clue of intoxication.
  • The stimulus is then moved to one side and maintained in that position in the maximum deviation test to identify separate nystagmus. Even sober persons will have some type of nystagmus that is apparent, making the concept of separate nystagmus somewhat ambiguous. A security guard will move the stimulus during the test at a rate of at least two seconds, from the centre to one side.
  • The stimulus will be maintained at its greatest deviation for at least four seconds before being shifted back toward the centre at a rate greater than two seconds per second. It is carried out for each eye. A prominent and continuous nystagmus at maximal deviation for both eyes will be noted by police as a clue.
  • In the next test, known as the before to 45 degree test, police must move the stimulus slowly from immediately in front of a person’s nose to a person’s shoulder at a rate of at least 4 seconds. Police are obliged to conduct the test twice for each eye and note the angle at which nystagmus is noticed. Nystagmus will be marked by security as a DWI clue if it is noticed before 45 degrees.
  • Finally, the test for vertical gaze nystagmus is administered by raising the stimulus until a person’s eyes are elevated as far as possible for 4 seconds. Any jerking of a person’s eye will result in a positive clue for DWI.
  • There are a total of 3 clues per eye, in addition to a single clue for vertical gaze nystagmus. Based on NHTSB research, if 4 or more clues are observed it is likely that a person’s BAC is at least .03%. Most people call .03% the legal limit, but it is actually the illegal floor for DWI in India. A person who has .03% BAC (or greater) may be charged with DWI in India
  •   Like all of the SFSTs involved in DWI stops, the horizontal gaze nystagmus test is highly subjective—and the results are only visible to the police.
  • Considerable change in Pupil size will be noticed when certain drug consumed, remember some drugs will increase the Pupil size.
  • While some drug consumed with alcohol will not affect the Pupil size but when light focused over the Iris will react to contract the size slowly or fast.

This is the clue where trained DRE will note the observation.

Walk and Turn DWI Field Sobriety Test

  • Nine heel-to-tie steps in one way, then nine steps back, make up the DWI walk and turn SFST. Security personnel are instructed to follow the following procedures while administering the walk-and-turn test:
  • Put your left foot on the line first, followed by your right foot on the line in front of your left, with your right foot’s heel resting against your left foot’s toe. Wait until I instruct you to begin before doing so.
  • Do you comprehend? Take 9 heel-to-toe steps on the line (as shown) when I tell you to start, then take 9 heel-to-toe steps back down the line. Keep your front foot on the line as you turn on the ninth step, turn while taking several tiny steps with the opposite foot (as shown), and take nine heel-toe steps back down the line.
  • Make sure to maintain your arms at your sides, count your steps aloud, gaze at your feet, and make sure.
  • The exam will start after someone says they understand the instructions. We’ll repeat any instructions that weren’t clear. The following 8 indicators are checked for DWI indications.
  • Can’t maintain balance while following directions
  • Stops moving, fails to heel-toe, or steps off the path.
  • Uses arms for balance
  • Improper turn
  • Incorrect number of steps.

If a person has a BAC of.03% or higher and at least two other factors point to it being. As was previously stated, that is recognised as DWI per se in India. In fact, someone who is completely sober may give the majority of the hints because they are asked to administer a test on demand without having heard the directions or read them beforehand.

Field Sobriety Test for DWI with One Leg Up

Standing on one leg with the other lifted just a little bit off the ground is the final STFT for DWI. The following instructions are given by police to those taking the one-leg stand test:

  • Place your hands at your sides and stand with your feet together (which is demonstrated)
  • Remain in place unless otherwise instructed.
  • When I instruct you to, lift one leg—either one—about 6 inches off the floor, pointing the foot forward, keeping both legs straight, and looking at the elevated foot. Count aloud starting with 1001, then 1002, then 1003, and so on until instructed to stop.
  • Do you comprehend the directions?

The fact that the test has a time limit of 30 seconds is not disclosed in advance or in the instructions by the authorities. Security personnel list the following four indicators as DWI warning signs:

  • Hops while balancing; • Sways while balancing; • Uses arms to balance;

According to the study, it is likely that someone is under the influence of alcohol if they exhibit 2 more signs or can’t balance for 30 seconds on one leg. Even a sober person could find it challenging to balance on one leg for 30 seconds, similar to the walk and turn test.

To Perform or Not Perform SFSTs during a DWI Stop

  • In contrast to the request to undergo a chemical test, which is typically a Breathalyzer and has no legal repercussions, a skilled DWI defence lawyer can challenge the results of any test conducted during a DWI stop, whether it involves standardised tests or coordination tests. A knowledgeable DWI defence attorney can contest the findings of any test performed during a DWI stop, whether it involves standardised testing or coordination tests, in contrast to the request to submit to a chemical test, which is often a Breathalyzer and has no legal implications.
  • In addition to other civil penalties, refusal to take a breathalyser results in the immediate suspension of a person’s driver’s licence and can be used as proof of guilt in court. However, refusing to take the SFST or coordination test just prevents the evidence from being used in court. Even if a person avoids SFSTs even though they would have fared well, the prosecution and/or jury will never know. Similar to how if someone performs poorly and rejects SFSTs.
  • Before starting the Modified Romberg Balance Test, the officer gives the subject 30 seconds to estimate, lean his or her head back slightly, and close their eyes. When the patient feels that 30 seconds have gone by, they are encouraged to shout “stop,” tilt their heads forward, and open their eyes.
  • The Modified Romberg Balance Test evaluates the subject’s internal clock and balance while looking for eye or body tremors. Anywhere between 25 and 35 seconds is regarded as normal in order to estimate 30 seconds. You are doing well if you say “stop” at any time between 25 and 35 seconds.


The Moral is that Security professional in an organization should not entirely rely over the on part technological aspects they should also check out for different options like Camera which can give visible clue & as part of security profession there are certain limitations & the set of rules where an Security professional need to adhere with the SOP’s

It should also be noted that the test has its Pros & Cons which is another aspect of the topic.